iSTAR for scientists


scientistsThe changes in flow of glaciers draining ice sheets is so poorly understood that in their 2007 report, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) believed it was the least well understood, and potentially the largest, contribution to sea-level rise in the coming century.

iSTAR scientists will be working together to engage with the scientific community on sea level projection to make sure their results are put to best use. Scientific publications will contribute to sea level estimates in the 6th Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change report, the main document used by policy makers.

Our work will inform glaciologists studying complex procedures, assist oceanographers to understand sea level rise and how ice melt can contribute to this.

Enthusing the next generation of researchers is an important part of this science programme.  A number of initiatives for early career scientists, such as a workshop at the University of East Anglia, are planned.

Our science team will test and develop techniques that will be useful for the wider scientific community to fully exploit data from this and future missions.

Regular updates for the sea level rise community will be posted on this website.

iSTAR publications

In press

Hogg, A. E., A. Shepherd, L. Gilbert, A. Muir, and M. R. Drinkwater (2017), Mapping ice sheet grounding lines with CryoSat-2, Advances in Space Research, In press, doi:10.1016/j.asr.2017.03.008.

Lenaerts, J. T. M., S. R. M. Ligtenberg, B. Medley, W. J. Van de Berg, H. Konrad, J. P. Nicolas, J. M. Van Wessem, L. D. Trusel, R. Mulvaney, R. J. Tuckwell, A. E. Hogg, and E. R. Thomas (2017), Climate and surface mass balance of coastal West Antarctica resolved by regional climate modelling, Annals of Glaciology, in press, doi:10.1017/aog.2017.42.


Davies, D., R. G. Bingham, E. C. King, A. M. Smith, A. M. Brisbourne, M. Spagnolo, A. G. C. Graham, A. E. Hogg, and D. G. Vaughan (2018), How dynamic are ice-stream beds?, The Cryosphere, 12(5), 1615-1628, doi:10.5194/tc-12-1615-2018.

Jones, R. W. (2018), Weather and climate in the Amundsen Sea Embayment, West Antarctica : observations, reanalyses and high resolution modelling, Ph.D. thesis, School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia.

Konrad, H., A. Shepherd, L. Gilbert, A. E. Hogg, M. McMillan, A. Muir, and T. Slater (2018), Net retreat of Antarctic glacier grounding lines, Nature Geoscience, 11(4), 258-262, doi:10.1038/s41561-018-0082-z.

Kyrke-Smith, T. M., G. H. Gudmundsson, and P. E. Farrell (2018), Relevance of Detail in Basal Topography for Basal Slipperiness Inversions: A Case Study on Pine Island Glacier, Antarctica, Frontiers in Earth Science, 6(33), doi:10.3389/feart.2018.00033.

Loose, B., A. C. Naveira Garabato, P. Schlosser, W. J. Jenkins, D. G. Vaughan, and K. J. Heywood (2018), Evidence of an active volcanic heat source beneath the Pine Island Glacier, Nature Communications, 9, 2431, doi:10.1038/s41467-018-04421-3.

Mallett, H. K. W., L. Boehme, M. Fedak, K. J. Heywood, D. P. Stevens, and F. Roquet (2018). Variation in the distribution and properties of Circumpolar Deep Water in the eastern Amundsen Sea, on seasonal timescales, using seal-borne tags. Geophysical Research Letters, 45(10), 4982-4990, doi:10.1029/2018GL077430.

Nias, I. J., S. L. Cornford, and A. J. Payne (2018), New Mass‐Conserving Bedrock Topography for Pine Island Glacier Impacts Simulated Decadal Rates of Mass Loss, Geophysical Research Letters, 45(7), 3173-3181, doi:10.1002/2017GL076493.

Roberts, J., et al. (2018), Ocean forced variability of Totten Glacier mass loss, Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 461(1), 175-186, doi:10.1144/sp461.6.

Siegert, M. J., B. Kulessa, M. Bougamont, P. Christoffersen, K. Key, K. R. Andersen, A. D. Booth, and A. M. Smith (2018), Antarctic subglacial groundwater: a concept paper on its measurement and potential influence on ice flow, Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 461, 197-213, doi:10.1144/sp461.8.

Slater, T., A. Shepherd, M. McMillan, A. Muir, L. Gilbert, A. E. Hogg, H. Konrad, and T. Parrinello (2018), A new digital elevation model of Antarctica derived from CryoSat-2 altimetry, The Cryosphere, 12(4), 1551-1562, doi:10.5194/tc-12-1551-2018.


Bentley, M. J., A. S. Hein, D. E. Sugden, P. L. Whitehouse, R. Shanks, S. Xu, and S. Freeman (2017), Deglacial history of the Pensacola Mountains, Antarctica from glacial geomorphology and cosmogenic nuclide surface exposure dating, Quaternary Science Reviews, 158, 58-76, doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2016.09.028.

Biddle, L. C., K. J. Heywood, J. Kaiser, and A. Jenkins (2017), Glacial Meltwater Identification in the Amundsen Sea, Journal of Physical Oceanography, 47(4), 933-954, doi:10.1175/JPO-D-16-0221.1.

Bingham, R. G., D. G. Vaughan, E. C. King, D. Davies, S. L. Cornford, A. M. Smith, R. J. Arthern, A. M. Brisbourne, J. De Rydt, A. G. C. Graham, M. Spagnolo, O. J. Marsh, and D. E. Shean (2017), Diverse landscapes beneath Pine Island Glacier influence ice flow, Nature Communications, 8(1), 1618, doi:10.1038/s41467-017-01597-y.

Brisbourne, A. M., A. M. Smith, D. G. Vaughan, E. C. King, D. Davies, R. G. Bingham, E. C. Smith, I. Nias, and S. H. R. Rosier (2017), Bed conditions of Pine Island Glacier, West Antarctica, Journal of Geophysical Research: Earth Surface, 122(1), 419-433, doi:10.1002/2016JF004033.

Davies, D., R. G. Bingham, A. G. C. Graham, M. Spagnolo, P. Dutrieux, D. G. Vaughan, A. Jenkins, and F. O. Nitsche (2017), High-resolution sub-ice-shelf seafloor records of twentieth century ungrounding and retreat of Pine Island Glacier, West Antarctica, Journal of Geophysical Research: Earth Surface, 122(9), 1698-1714, doi:10.1002/2017JF004311.

Kimura, S., A. Jenkins, H. Regan, P. R. Holland, K. M. Assmann, D. Whitt, M. Van Wessem, W. J. van de Berg, C. H. Reijmer, and P. Dutrieux (2017), Oceanographic Controls on the Variability of Ice-Shelf Basal Melting and Circulation of Glacial Meltwater in the Amundsen Sea Embayment, Antarctica, Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 122(12), 10131-10155, doi:10.1002/2017JC012926.

Konrad, H., L. Gilbert, S. L. Cornford, A. Payne, A. Hogg, A. Muir, and A. Shepherd (2017), Uneven onset and pace of ice-dynamical imbalance in the Amundsen Sea Embayment, West Antarctica, Geophysical Research Letters, 44(2), 910-918, doi:10.1002/2016GL070733.

Kyrke-Smith, T. M., G. H. Gudmundsson, and P. E. Farrell (2017), Can Seismic Observations of Bed Conditions on Ice Streams Help Constrain Parameters in Ice Flow Models?, Journal of Geophysical Research: Earth Surface, 122(11), 2269-2282, doi:10.1002/2017JF004373.

Martos, Y. M., M. Catalan, T. A. Jordan, A. Golynsky, D. Golynsky, G. Eagles, and D. G. Vaughan (2017), Heat Flux Distribution of Antarctica Unveiled, Geophysical Research Letters, 44(22), 11417-11426, doi:10.1002/2017gl075609.

Morris, E. M., R. Mulvaney, R. J. Arthern, D. Davies, R. J. Gurney, P. Lambert, J. De Rydt, A. M. Smith, R. J. Tuckwell, and M. Winstrup (2017), Snow Densification and Recent Accumulation Along the iSTAR Traverse, Pine Island Glacier, Antarctica, Journal of Geophysical Research: Earth Surface, 122(12), 2284–2301, doi:10.1002/2017JF004357.

Naveira Garabato, A. C., A. Forryan, P. Dutrieux, L. Brannigan, L. C. Biddle, K. J. Heywood, A. Jenkins, Y. L. Firing, and S. Kimura (2017), Vigorous lateral export of the meltwater outflow from beneath an Antarctic ice shelf, Nature, 542(7640), 219–222, doi:10.1038/nature20825.

Nias, I. J. (2017), Modelling the Amundsen Sea ice streams, West Antarctica, Ph.D. thesis, School of Geographical Sciences, University of Bristol. Not currently available online.

Scambos, T. A., et al. (2017), How much, how fast?: A science review and outlook for research on the instability of Antarctica’s Thwaites Glacier in the 21st century, Global and Planetary Change, 153, 16-34, doi:10.1016/j.gloplacha.2017.04.008.

Shepherd, A. and S. Nowicki (2017), Improvements in ice-sheet sea-level projections, Nature Climate Change, 7(10), 672-674, doi:10.1038/nclimate3400.

Smith, A. M. (2017), Pine Island Glacier and ice sheet stability in West Antarctica, Eos, 98, doi:10.1029/2017EO086471.

Treasure, A. M., et al. (2017), Marine Mammals Exploring the Oceans Pole to Pole: A Review of the MEOP Consortium, Oceanography, 30(2), 132-138, doi:10.5670/oceanog.2017.234.

Verezemskaya, P., N. Tilinina, S. Gulev, I. A. Renfrew, and M. Lazzara (2017), Southern Ocean mesocyclones and polar lows from manually tracked satellite mosaics, Geophysical Research Letters, 44(15), 7985–7993, doi:10.1002/2017GL074053.

Webber, B. G. M., K. J. Heywood, D. P. Stevens, P. Dutrieux, E. P. Abrahamsen, A. Jenkins, S. S. Jacobs, H. K. Ha, S. H. Lee, and T. W. Kim (2017), Mechanisms driving variability in the ocean forcing of Pine Island Glacier, Nature Communications, 8, 14507, doi:10.1038/ncomms14507.

Whitehouse, P. L., M. J. Bentley, A. Vieli, S. S. R. Jamieson, A. S. Hein, and D. E. Sugden (2017), Controls on Last Glacial Maximum ice extent in the Weddell Sea embayment, Antarctica, Journal of Geophysical Research-Earth Surface, 122(1), 371-397, doi:10.1002/2016jf004121.


Biddle, L. (2016), Identifying Glacial Meltwater in the Amundsen Sea, Ph.D. thesis, School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia.

Christianson, K., M. Bushuk, P. Dutrieux, B. R. Parizek, I. R. Joughin, R. B. Alley, D. E. Shean, E. P. Abrahamsen, S. Anandakrishnan, K. J. Heywood, T.-W. Kim, S. H. Lee, K. Nicholls, T. Stanton, M. Truffer, B. G. M. Webber, A. Jenkins, S. Jacobs, R. Bindschadler, and D. M. Holland (2016), Sensitivity of Pine Island Glacier to observed ocean forcing, Geophysical Research Letters, 43(20), 10817-10825, doi:10.1002/2016GL070500.

Cornford, S. L., D. F. Martin, V. Lee, A. J. Payne, and E. G. Ng (2016), Adaptive mesh refinement versus subgrid friction interpolation in simulations of Antarctic ice dynamics, Annals of Glaciology, 57(73), 1-9, doi:10.1017/aog.2016.13.

De Rydt, J., and G. H. Gudmundsson (2016), Coupled ice shelf-ocean modeling and complex grounding line retreat from a seabed ridge, Journal of Geophysical Research-Earth Surface, 121(5), 865-880, doi:10.1002/2015jf003791.

Dinniman, M. S., X. S. Asay-Davis, B. K. Galton-Fenzi, P. R. Holland, A. Jenkins, and R. Timmermann (2016), Modeling Ice Shelf/Ocean in Antarctica A REVIEW, Oceanography, 29(4), 144-153, doi:10.5670/oceanog.2016.106.

Heywood, K. J., L. C. Biddle, L. Boehme, P. Dutrieux, M. Fedak, A. Jenkins, R. W. Jones, J. Kaiser, H. Mallett, A. C. Naveira Garabato, I. A. Renfrew, D. P. Stevens, and B. G. M. Webber (2016), Between the devil and the deep blue sea: The role of the Amundsen Sea continental shelf in exchanges between ocean and ice shelves, Oceanography, 29(4), 118-129, doi:10.5670/oceanog.2016.104.

Jenkins, A. (2016), A Simple Model of the Ice Shelf-Ocean Boundary Layer and Current, Journal of Physical Oceanography, 46(6), 1785-1803, doi:10.1175/jpo-d-15-0194.1.

Jenkins, A., P. Dutrieux, S. Jacobs, E. J. Steig, G. H. Gudmundsson, J. Smith, and K. J. Heywood (2016), Decadal ocean forcing and Antarctic Ice Sheet response: Lessons from the Amundsen Sea, Oceanography, 29(4), 106-117, doi:10.5670/oceanog.2016.103.

Jones, R. W., I. A. Renfrew, A. Orr, B. G. M. Webber, D. M. Holland, and M. A. Lazzara (2016), Evaluation of four global reanalysis products using in situ observations in the Amundsen Sea Embayment, Antarctica, Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 121(11), 6240-6257, doi:10.1002/2015JD024680.

Kimura, S., A. Jenkins, P. Dutrieux, A. Forryan, A. C. Naveira Garabato, and Y. Firing (2016), Ocean mixing beneath Pine Island Glacier ice shelf, West Antarctica, Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 121(12), 8496-8510, doi:10.1002/2016JC012149.

Nias, I. J., S. L. Cornford, and A. J. Payne (2016), Contrasting the modelled sensitivity of the Amundsen Sea Embayment ice streams, Journal of Glaciology, 62(233), 552-562, doi:10.1017/jog.2016.40.

Nowicki, S. M. J., A. Payne, E. Larour, H. Seroussi, H. Goelzer, W. Lipscomb, J. Gregory, A. Abe-Ouchi, and A. Shepherd (2016), Ice Sheet Model Intercomparison Project (ISMIP6) contribution to CMIP6, Geoscientific Model Development, 9(12), 4521-4545, doi:10.5194/gmd-9-4521-2016.

Wearing, M. G. (2016), The flow dynamics and buttressing of ice shelves, Ph.D. thesis, University of Cambridge,


Bougamont, M., P. Christoffersen, S. F. Price, H. A. Fricker, S. Tulaczyk, and S. P. Carter (2015), Reactivation of Kamb Ice Stream tributaries triggers century-scale reorganization of Siple Coast ice flow in West Antarctica, Geophysical Research Letters, 42(20), 8471-8480, doi:10.1002/2015GL065782.

Bradley, S. L., R. C. A. Hindmarsh, P. L. Whitehouse, M. J. Bentley, and M. A. King (2015), Low post-glacial rebound rates in the Weddell Sea due to Late Holocene ice-sheet readvance, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 413, 79-89, doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2014.12.039.

Brennan, P. V., S. Rahman, and L. B. Lok (2015), Range migration compensation in static digital-beamforming-on-receive radar, IET Radar Sonar and Navigation, 9(9), 1323-1329, doi:10.1049/iet-rsn.2014.0355.

Cornford, S. L., et al. (2015), Century-scale simulations of the response of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet to a warming climate, Cryosphere, 9(4), 1579-1600, doi:10.5194/tc-9-1579-2015.

Gordine, S. A., M. Fedak, and L. Boehme (2015), Fishing for drifts: detecting buoyancy changes of a top marine predator using a step-wise filtering method, Journal of Experimental Biology, 218(23), 3816-3824, doi:10.1242/jeb.118109.

Jordan, J. R., S. Kimura, P. R. Holland, A. Jenkins, and M. D. Piggott (2015), On the Conditional Frazil Ice Instability in Seawater, Journal of Physical Oceanography, 45(4), 1121-1138, doi:10.1175/jpo-d-14-0159.1.

Nicholls, K. W., H. F. J. Corr, C. L. Stewart, L. B. Lok, P. V. Brennan, and D. G. Vaughan (2015), A ground-based radar for measuring vertical strain rates and time-varying basal melt rates in ice sheets and shelves, Journal of Glaciology, 61(230), 1079-1087, doi:10.3189/2015JoG15J073.

Photopoulou, T., M. A. Fedak, J. Matthiopoulos, B. McConnell, and P. Lovell (2015), The generalized data management and collection protocol for Conductivity-Temperature-Depth Satellite Relay Data Loggers, Animal Biotelemetry, 3(1), 21, doi:10.1186/s40317-015-0053-8.

Randall-Goodwin, E., et al. (2015), Freshwater distributions and water mass structure in the Amundsen Sea Polynya region, Antarctica, Elementa-Science of the Anthropocene, 3, doi:10.12952/journal.elementa.000065.


Bentley, M. J., et al. (2014), A community-based geological reconstruction of Antarctic Ice Sheet deglaciation since the Last Glacial Maximum, Quaternary Science Reviews, 100, 1-9, doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2014.06.025.

Brennan, P. V., L. B. Lok, K. Nicholls, and H. Corr (2014), Phase-sensitive FMCW radar system for high-precision Antarctic ice shelf profile monitoring, IET Radar Sonar and Navigation, 8(7), 776-786, doi:10.1049/iet-rsn.2013.0053.

Christoffersen, P., M. Bougamont, S. P. Carter, H. A. Fricker, and S. Tulaczyk (2014), Significant groundwater contribution to Antarctic ice streams hydrologic budget, Geophysical Research Letters, 41(6), 2003-2010, doi:10.1002/2014GL059250.

De Rydt, J., P. R. Holland, P. Dutrieux, and A. Jenkins (2014), Geometric and oceanographic controls on melting beneath Pine Island Glacier, Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans, 119(4), 2420-2438, doi:10.1002/2013jc009513.

Dutrieux, P., J. De Rydt, A. Jenkins, P. R. Holland, H. K. Ha, S. H. Lee, E. J. Steig, Q. H. Ding, E. P. Abrahamsen, and M. Schroder (2014a), Strong Sensitivity of Pine Island Ice-Shelf Melting to Climatic Variability, Science, 343(6167), 174-178, doi:10.1126/science.1244341.

Dutrieux, P., C. Stewart, A. Jenkins, K. W. Nicholls, H. F. J. Corr, E. Rignot, and K. Steffen (2014b), Basal terraces on melting ice shelves, Geophysical Research Letters, 41(15), 5506-5513, doi:10.1002/2014GL060618.

Gong, Y., S. L. Cornford, and A. J. Payne (2014), Modelling the response of the Lambert Glacier-Amery Ice Shelf system, East Antarctica, to uncertain climate forcing over the 21st and 22nd centuries, Cryosphere, 8(3), 1057-1068, doi:10.5194/tc-8-1057-2014.

Hillenbrand, C. D., et al. (2014), Reconstruction of changes in the Weddell Sea sector of the Antarctic Ice Sheet since the Last Glacial Maximum, Quaternary Science Reviews, 100, 111-136, doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2013.07.020.

Hodgson, D. A., et al. (2014), Terrestrial and submarine evidence for the extent and timing of the Last Glacial Maximum and the onset of deglaciation on the maritime-Antarctic and sub-Antarctic islands, Quaternary Science Reviews, 100, 137-158, doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2013.12.001.

Jamieson, S. S. R., C. R. Stokes, N. Ross, D. M. Rippin, R. G. Bingham, D. S. Wilson, M. Margold, and M. J. Bentley (2014), The glacial geomorphology of the Antarctic ice sheet bed, Antarctic Science, 26(6), 724-741, doi:10.1017/s0954102014000212.

Johnson, J. S., M. J. Bentley, J. A. Smith, R. C. Finkel, D. H. Rood, K. Gohl, G. Balco, R. D. Larter, and J. M. Schaefer (2014), Rapid Thinning of Pine Island Glacier in the Early Holocene, Science, 343(6174), 999-1001, doi:10.1126/science.1247385.

Jordan, J. R., P. R. Holland, A. Jenkins, M. D. Piggott, and S. Kimura (2014), Modeling ice-ocean interaction in ice-shelf crevasses, Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans, 119(2), 995-1008, doi:10.1002/2013jc009208.

Kimura, S., P. R. Holland, A. Jenkins, and M. Piggott (2014), The Effect of Meltwater Plumes on the Melting of a Vertical Glacier Face, Journal of Physical Oceanography, 44(12), 3099-3117, doi:10.1175/jpo-d-13-0219.1.

Larter, R. D., et al. (2014), Reconstruction of changes in the Amundsen Sea and Bellingshausen Sea sector of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet since the Last Glacial Maximum, Quaternary Science Reviews, 100, 55-86, doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2013.10.016.

Levermann, A., et al. (2014), Projecting Antarctic ice discharge using response functions from SeaRISE ice-sheet models, Earth System Dynamics, 5(2), 271-293, doi:10.5194/esd-5-271-2014.

McMillan, M., A. Shepherd, A. Sundal, K. Briggs, A. Muir, A. Ridout, A. Hogg, and D. Wingham (2014), Increased ice losses from Antarctica detected by CryoSat-2, Geophysical Research Letters, 41(11), 3899-3905, doi:10.1002/2014gl060111.

Morris, E. M., and D. J. Wingham (2014), Densification of polar snow: Measurements, modeling, and implications for altimetry, Journal of Geophysical Research-Earth Surface, 119(2), 349-365, doi:10.1002/2013jf002898.

Ó Cofaigh, C., et al. (2014), Reconstruction of ice-sheet changes in the Antarctic Peninsula since the Last Glacial Maximum, Quaternary Science Reviews, 100, 87-110, doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2014.06.023.

Rahman, S., and P. V. Brennan (2014), Shape matching algorithm for detecting radar hidden targets to determine internal layers in Antarctic ice shelves, paper presented at 2014 IEEE Radar Conference, 19-23 May 2014, doi:10.1109/RADAR.2014.6875824.

Roquet, F., et al. (2014), A Southern Indian Ocean database of hydrographic profiles obtained with instrumented elephant seals, Scientific Data, 1, 10, doi:10.1038/sdata.2014.28.


Assmann, K. M., A. Jenkins, D. R. Shoosmith, D. P. Walker, S. S. Jacobs, and K. W. Nicholls (2013), Variability of Circumpolar Deep Water transport onto the Amundsen Sea continental shelf through a shelf break trough, Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans, 118(12), 6603-6620, doi:10.1002/2013jc008871.

Dutrieux, P., D. G. Vaughan, H. F. J. Corr, A. Jenkins, P. R. Holland, I. Joughin, and A. H. Fleming (2013), Pine Island glacier ice shelf melt distributed at kilometre scales, Cryosphere, 7(5), 1543-1555, doi:10.5194/tc-7-1543-2013.

Fretwell, P., et al. (2013), Bedmap2: improved ice bed, surface and thickness datasets for Antarctica, Cryosphere, 7(1), 375-393, doi:10.5194/tc-7-375-2013.

Rahman, S., P. V. Brennan, and L. Lok (2013), Millimeter-precision range profiling and cross-sectional imaging of ice shelves in Polar regions using phase-sensitive FMCW radar, paper presented at 2013 IEEE Radar Conference (RadarCon13), April 29 2013-May 3 2013, doi:10.1109/RADAR.2013.6586055.

Roquet, F., et al. (2013), Estimates of the Southern Ocean general circulation improved by animal-borne instruments, Geophysical Research Letters, 40(23), 6176-6180, doi:10.1002/2013gl058304.

Smith, A. M., T. A. Jordan, F. Ferraccioli, and R. G. Bingham (2013), Influence of subglacial conditions on ice stream dynamics: Seismic and potential field data from Pine Island Glacier, West Antarctica, Journal of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth, 118(4), 1471-1482, doi:10.1029/2012jb009582.

Walker, D. P., A. Jenkins, K. M. Assmann, D. R. Shoosmith, and M. A. Brandon (2013), Oceanographic observations at the shelf break of the Amundsen Sea, Antarctica, Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans, 118(6), 2906-2918, doi:10.1002/jgrc.20212.


Boehme, L., and M. Fedak (2012), Animal-borne sensors, in The Southern Ocean Observing System: Initial Science and Implementation Strategy, edited by S. R. Rintoul, M. Sparrow, M. P. Meredith, V. Wadley, K. Speer, E. Hofmann, C. Summerhayes, E. Urban and R. Bellerby, pp. 38-40,

Brennan, P. V., A. Narayanan, and R. Benjamin (2012), Grating lobe control in randomised, sparsely populated MIMO radar arrays, IET Radar Sonar and Navigation, 6(7), 587-594, doi:10.1049/iet-rsn.2010.0347.